Document Type : Research Paper


1 professor in university of tehran

2 univercity of tehran


The "dream" is a basic and important idiom in Arabic modern poetry and literary criticism. This idiom, influenced by Sufism or some western schools, made significant changes in the principles of writing modern Arabic poetry. Thus, the Arabic modern poet did not use the previous structures and old frameworks of poetry but sought new ways to create a new language in modern poetry. Among the Arab modern poets, Adonis tries to apply methods of dreamy writing in his works. This article is written based on analytical-descriptive method and aims to introduce the idiom of dream in the literary criticism. It also specifies the techniques of dreamy writing in poetry of Adonis. It concludes that he uses techniques of dreamy writing for example: breaking the grammatical norms including breaking the sign of ascribe, deletion of conjunctions, as well as indetermination of pronoun references. He also uses paradoxical images, defamiliarization in images, and implements practices in text interpretation such as ignorance of words definitions, incomplete sentences, and absence of subject. According to this, it can be concluded firstly that the idiom of "dream" caused a lot of changes in the definition of poetry and in the use of technical equipment in new poetry language, especially in the poems of Adonis. Second, Adonis approached the legacy of Sophism and Sufi writing style by applying new writing practices. Thirdly, he is the only contemporary critic that considers features for dream as: invisibility, ambiguity and infinity; and provides a comprehensive definition of it. Fourth, according to Adonis definition, the idiom of "dream" is different from the Sufism idiom of "observation", because it's not just seeing and viewing and the poet at a higher level interferes and manipulates the concepts. And the last point is that Adonis could, with using these techniques, approach to dreamy writing.


Abdullah, M. (1981). Poetic Image and Poetic Structure, Cairo, Dar al-Ma'aref. [In Arabic].
Abdolmotalleb, M. (1977). Sources of Creation in Poetry, Fosool, Vol .16, Pp49-65. [In Arabic].
Al Jurjani, A. (1985). the Taʿrīfāt, Beirut, Maktaba Lebanon. [In Arabic].
Al- Qazzami, A. (2006). Anatomy of Text, Beirut, Arabic Cultural center. [In Arabic].
Al Qud, A. (2002). Ambiguity in Modern Poetry, Kuwait, Alam al-Ma'arfa. [In Arabic].
Adonis, (1996). Mahyar of Damascus's Songs, Damascus, Dar al-mada. [In Arabic].
----------. (1988). Singular in a Plural Form, Beirut, Dar al-adab. [In Arabic].
----------. (1996). This is My Name and Other Poems Damascus, Dar al-Mada. [In Arabic].
----------. (1989). Speech of the Beginnings, Beirut, Dar- Al-adab. [In Arabic].
----------. (2002) Music of the Blue Whale, Beirut, Dar- Al-adab. [In Arabic].
----------. (1986). The Time for Poetry. Beirut, Dar- Al-fekr. [In Arabic].
----------. (1380). Sufism and Surrealism, Abbasi, A (Translator), Roozegar Publisher. [In Persian].
----------. (1988). Rambo-Oriental- Sufi, Mawaqif, No. 57, Pp31-40. [In Arabic].
----------. (1961). Arabic Poetry and Issue of Renewal, in Contemporary Arabic Literature: Roman conference. [In Arabic].
----------. (1966). Reflections Around My Experience, My Experience About Poetry, No.3, Pp196-197, March. [In Arabic].
Ashri Zaid, A. (2002). Structure of Arabic Modern Poetry, Cairo, Avicenna's Maktaba. [In Arabic].
Barout, M. (1981). the Poem Write His Name, Damascus Etihad al- kuttab al-Arab. [In Arabic].
Bennis, M. (2001). Arabic Modern Poem, Dar Toobqal, al dar al-bayza. [In Arabic].
Bennis, M. (1979). Phenomenon of Contemporary Poetry in Morocco, Beirut, Dar al-awda. [In Arabic].
Fakhreddin, J. (1997). Adonis, Concern for Search and Interpretation, Fosoul, Vol. 16, No.2, Pp182-190. [In Arabic].
Fooladi, A. (1387). Sufi Language, Tehran, Publisher of Fra goft. [In Persian].
Fotouhi, M. (1390). Stylistic, Tehran, Publisher of Sokhan [In Persian].
--------------. (1385).  Rumor of Image, Tehran, Publisher of Sokhan, [In Persian].
Ibn Arabi, M. (2000). Ibn 'Arabi's Treatises Beirut, Dar al-mahajja al- bayza. [In Arabic].
Jafar, M. (2002). Sufism Dreams in Contemporary Arabic poetry, Baghdad, Dar al-Shaun al-Thakhafi al-Amah.[In Arabic].
Ismael, E. (1967).Contemporary Arabic poetry, Cairo, Dar al-kateb al- arabi. [In Arabic].
Kawan, M. (2005). The Writing Between Existentialist and Surrealist and Sufism, Literary Studies, No. 11-12, Pp188-200. [In Arabic].
Kheyrbag, K. (1986). Movement of Modernism in Contemporary Arabic poetry, Beirut, Dar Al-Fekr. [In Arabic].
Movafi, A. (2006). Prose Poetry, From Establishment to Reference, Cairo, General Egyptian Commission for Writers. [In Arabic].
Saleh, B. (1994). Poetic Image in Arabic Modern Criticism, Beirut, Arabic Cultural center. [In Arabic].
Said, Kh.(1982). Creativity Mobility, Beirut, Dar al- Awda. [In Arabic].
Tamam, H. (1988). Arabic Language: Meaning and Basis, Cairo, Alam al-kutub. [In Arabic].