Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Candidate of Arabic Language and Literatur, University of Arak Arak. Iran

2 Assistant Professor of Arabic Language and Literature, Faculty of Literature and Foreign Languages, Arak University, Arak, Iran.

3 Associate Professor of Arabic Language and Literatur, Faculty of Literature and Foreign Languages, Arak University, Arak, Iran.



Elaine Showalter is an American feminist theorist, by proposing the theory of “gynocriticism” and relying on a recurring model in literary subcultures, emphasizes the need to analysis the works of women writers in any country in support of this theory. In this way, it passes through two stages of Imitation (female stage) and protesting against the dominant (feminist stage), finally reaches the third stage, which is to achieve individual identity (feminine stage). The present study intends to use the method of qualitative content analysis and relying on the three stages proposed, examines four works of fiction by Algerian women writers and can show the evolution of female imitation and the reproduction of the norms of the masculine tradition of Algerian women writers to a conscious protest and rebellion and finally  achieving seif-awareness, as well as the extent to which they succeed in reflecting their demands in literature. Finally, it can be stated that the Manifestation of the model of Showalter's theory in the women’s works occurred simultaneously, which this is due to the delay in the presence of Algerian women in the field of writing, It is important to note that only Ahlam Mostaghani in the novel "Al-Aswad Yaliq Bek" managed to enter the third stage triumphantly. Thus, this work is considered as a the beginning of the female writing tradition for other female writers to manifest female activism and self-awareness in women's writing


Ahmed Sharibet, S. (2008), "The Noun of Women in Algerian Literature", Algeria, Amal Journal (article studies), second issue. [In Arabic].
Al-Farouq, F. (2006), Taa' Al-Khajal, Lebanon, Beirut, Riyad Al-Rayes for Books and Publishing, 1st Edition .[In Arabic].
Al-Ghazami, A. (1395). Woman and Language, Translated by Hoda Odeh Tabar, Tehran, New Step, second edition. [In Persian].
Bouaziz, Y. (2001), Algerian Women: And the Arab Feminist Reform Movement, Algeria, Dar Al-Huda. [In Arabic].
Dad, S. (1392). Dictionary of Literary Terms, Tehran, Morvarid Publications, sixth edition. [ In Persian].
Haddad, N. (2015), "Contemporary Arab Feminist Criticism, The Book of Women and Narratives by Muhammad Mutasim", a supplementary note to obtaining a master's degree in the field of Arabic language and literature, University of Larbi Ben M'hidi - Oum El Bouaghi, Algeria. [In Arabic].
Ham, M. (2003) Culture of Feminist Theories, Translated by Noushin Ahmadi Khorasani et al., Tehran, Development Publishing, First Edition.
Hosseini, M. B. (2018), "Criticism of women from the perspective of Manflouti and Al-Ahmad", Journal of Arabic Literature, Year 3, Number 3, 281-306. [ In Persian].
Louise, D. (2013), I will throw myself in front of you, Beirut: Algerian Differing Publications and Difaf Publications, 1st ed. [In Arabic].
Maryami, E. et al. (2019), Feminist Themes in the Works of Miral Al Tahawi, Arabic Literature, Year 12, Number 1, Spring 2019: 69-91. [In Arabic].
Morris, P. (2002), Literature and Feminism, Translated by Siham Abdel Salam, Cairo: The Supreme Council of Culture, first edition.[In Arabic].
Mosteghanemi, A. (2012), Black befits you, Lebanon, Beirut: Dar Nawfal, Imprint of the publisher.
Saleh, Y. (2009), Sea of Silence, Cairo: Civilization for Publishing, second edition.
Shahbazi, M. (1397) "The evolution of self-awareness in the works of Iranian women novelists based on the theory of Ellen Showalter", Woman in Culture and Art, Volume 10, Number 2, 309-285. [In Arabic].
Showalter, E. (1977), A Literature of Their Own: British Women novelists from Bronte to Lessing, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.