Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Arabic language and literature, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, Iran

2 Department of Arabic Language and Literature, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, Iran.

3 Department of Arabic Language and Literature, University of Lebanon, Beirut, Lebanon



Grimas is considered the pioneer of the Paris Semiotic School and one of its most famous theorists who built the most important narrative theory, through which he was able to transcend the traditional concept of personality. Grimas touched on the concept of the factor in his theory, which was called the factorial model, which is a model for analyzing narratives and is linked to narrative texts and works to embody the path of characters and control functions and actions. The factor means everything that has an impact on the growth and development of events, whether it is a human figure, an inanimate object, an animal, an idea, or something that has a moving and influential force within the world of the narrative text. The factorial model is also based on six factors: the subject, the subject, the sender, the addressee, the helper, and the opponent. These factors come in three relationships: desire, communication, and conflict. The focus of this study on a narrative text is the anecdotal collection Grapes of Thirst by the Lebanese writer Ali Hijazi, which sheds light, according to the descriptive analytical method, on the culture of resistance in Arab society. The Israelis, however, remained a steadfast people that did not fear the enemy and did not surrender to it. This study aims to show the success and efficiency of the factorial model in its applicability to group stories. One of the most important results we have reached is that the factor can consist of several actors, as in the story of Al-Hujair and the university student lecturing as a martyr about the culture of life. There are material objects that played different global roles, such as the camera, the plane, the disappearance of the resistance fighters, and Abu Shakib's car. The factorial model is a narrative technique for studying the actors that drive events and their development and includes three relationships: desire, communication, and conflict.


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